New turn in the policy of China with the natality. The Government of the Asian country allow each couple to have three children, and not two as before, in an attempt to relaunch births and thus reverse the aging of its population.
The decision has been made by the Political Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), which has ensured that the objective of the measure is “to improve the population structure” and “preserve the advantages in human resources in the country,” as reported by the Chinese news agency Xinhua.
China’s concern is not trivial. According to figures from the country’s National Statistical Office, during 2020 the twelve million children in the Asian country, almost 18% less than in 2019, when 14.6 million births were reached. This is the lowest figure since 1961.
And all this despite having relaxed its strict family planning policy since 2016, allowing families to have two children instead of one. In 2020, the Chinese fertility rate was 1.3 children per woman, far from the 1.8 set by the authorities in 2016 after modifying its one-child policy, imposed in the 70s of the last century to stop that. moment a population explosion. It is estimated that this decision has been able to avoid close to 400 million births.
Despite this decline in the birth rate last year, China’s population grew to 1,412 million people in 2020, which is a slight increase compared to 1,405 million in 2019, thanks to immigration. However, the rate of growth in the last decade is the slowest since the 1950s due to the reduction in births.
Specifically, in the last ten years, the population of mainland China grew from 72 million inhabitants, 5.38% more than in 2010. This rate is the lowest since modern censuses began in 1953 when the country was barely inhabited 580 million people.
Some trends of note in China’s new census. Nothing overly surprising (such is the nature of demographic change) but striking all the same.
China’s population is still growing. But compared with 2010 (last full census), the growth is largely accounted for by the 60+ cohort. (1 / x) pic.twitter.com/Kb9md8l0EW
– Simon Rabinovitch (@S_Rabinovitch) May 11, 2021
Almost 19% of the population is over 60 years old
A direct consequence of a lower birth rate is the aging of the population. Those over 60 represent 264 million people -18.7% of the total- compared to 177.6 million in 2010, while those over 65 grew to 190 million, compared to 118.8 million ten years ago.
“ANDl greater aging of the population imposes continuous pressure on a balanced population development in the long term in the next period “, has recognized the director of the National Statistical Office Ning Jizhe.
On the other hand, the 15 to 59 age range -People who are of working age in China – represent 63.35% of the population compared to 70.14% in 2010.