With the social distancing current, the digital becomes the best ally of man. The races in “drive” save us the long queues at the supermarket, the professors give their lectures in video conferencing, and it is even possible to consult his doctor in telemedicine. The pandemic raises all resistances to digital services that were struggling to settle in the us and customs. It is always the case for e-voting : the technology has been proven and the various experiences that have already taken place. The period we live in is conducive to its implementation. This would no longer be permitted to avoid risk-taking health to the first round of the municipal and to ensure a higher participation. Various experiments have already taken place in France without it becoming a general. Then, when an electoral map cloud ?
What are the limits to the application of a voting card online in France ?
Attention this will not be easy and the limits are many. Starting with the physical experience of voting itself : voting is a solemn moment. It is a symbol of democratic “practice,” which remains in many modern States a ritual physical. The path to the polling place, the voting booth, in which many are those who change their mind until the last moment, the ballot box in plexiglas, the famous “voted”, the counting manual ballots, all this ritual symbolizes the compliance of the main principles of the expression of democracy… Difficult to replace by a cold-click on a computer.
Another major limitation, the voting should be secret. A database that would identify the vote to the identity of the voter, would undermine the private nature of the vote. To ensure the encryption of the vote, the technology blockchain can help. In the Usa the former candidate for president, Andrew Yang, had launched a plea for the online voting, which is secured by the blockchain : “It is technically possible to 100 % to have a vote in the event of fraud on our mobile phones today using the blockchain.”
In France, the main block remains the resistance related to the risks of corruption or purchase of votes. Indeed, the count can be altered during the transmission of the votes. With online voting, the results are centralized electronically and the level of cyber-threat platform vote would be, no doubt, be high given the size of the stake.
France is not at the forefront in the field of e-voting :
Estonia was the first country to implement online voting, starting in 2005, and now more than a third of votes are cast online. No wonder, because in Estonia, we can do almost everything online : create a business in a record time, and even become Estonian through the status of “e-Resident”. To return to the vote, it is precisely thanks to his digital identity card that the country can be used to authenticate the voters.
India is also at the forefront of the e-voting. To enable in particular the citizens illiterate, and isolated, to exercise their right to vote, the country has deployed a large territory with over 1.4 million voting machines. These machines have saved more than 417 million votes in the general election of 2009. In 2019, because of its remoteness from centres of voting, a third of the population was unable to vote. The country was then launched in the beginning of 2020 in the technology blockchain to propose the vote via a mobile application.
In France, for the moment, the thoughts on e-voting are at the point of death, because of the fear of piracy. The only short-term evolution should focus on a detail : the disappearance of the voter card paper, which could easily be replaced by an email or SMS information. As a vital card to vote, other digital service, which works in spite of the sensitive nature of the data !
Essential to take account of the cyber malice
In Russia, to help secure their online voting system (which has served as the parliamentary elections last September) the government has made an appeal to the hackers of the world, to detect the flaws in the system, in order to secure the best their platform to vote.
In France, the period of crisis has highlighted the structural weaknesses of the public platforms.
A reflection has been carried out following the recent attacks platforms for the public administration. The senators Christian Cambon (Val-de-Marne, france), Olivier Cadic (the French established outside of France) and Rachel Mazuir (Ain), have published a study last Thursday, alerting on cyber threats in a time of crisis. Data from The AP-HP (Paris), the AP-HM (Marseille), and the public health establishment of Lomagne, in the Gers have been leaked. The computer networks of the City of Marseille were the victims, also, on the eve of the 1st round of the municipal elections, a cyber-cyber attack of great magnitude. This structural fragility is due, according to the authors of the study, a “chronic under-investment” as well as an entry too rapid and poorly managed services scanned.