What you need to know about melanoma: best practices MOZ

Melanoma is considered a very insidious disease.

Что нужно знать о меланоме: рекомендации МОЗ

What you should know about melanoma: best practices MOZ

Melanoma is one of the most dangerous types of cancer because it spreads through the lymph and blood to almost all organs. Together with the Centre for public health the Ministry of health of Ukraine told about the risk factors symptoms of melanoma, methods of diagnosis and prevention.

What is melanoma

Melanoma – a malignant tumor that develops from melanocytes (pigment cells producing melanin). The tumor is predominantly localized in the skin, rarely in the retina of the eye, mucous membranes (the mouth and nose, perianal and vulvovaginal areas), etc.

Melanoma spreads through the lymph and blood to almost all organs. Typically, the melanoma metastases appear within the first year from onset of the disease. Metastases initially spread to the lymph nodes and later to lung, liver, bone, brain.

According to who, every year around the world recorded approximately 48,000 deaths associated with melanoma.

Что нужно знать о меланоме: рекомендации МОЗ

What you should know about melanoma: best practices MOZ

Who is at risk:

Risk factors:

  • white skin, bright (blue) eyes, blonde hair and pink freckles;
  • a history of sunburn (even for the burns you received during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, can play a fatal role in tumor development in subsequent years)
  • excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation – even in artificial tanning;
  • if you or your relatives had a melanoma (personal or family history of melanoma;
  • nevi (moles): 70% congenital, 30% – acquired more than 50 nevi on the skin increases the risk of developing melanoma;
  • trauma and change in the characteristics of nevi;
  • age older than 50 years;

The risk of melanoma is also related to skin phototype. Most likely to develop tumor people with I and II phototype and least – V and VI. But if you have a V or VI phototype, it does not mean that you can not appear melanoma.

How to determine your skin phototype:

  • I – sunburn always occurs after a brief (30 min) exposure to the sun; sunburn never is purchased.
  • II – sunburns occur easily; sunburn is possible, albeit with difficulty.
  • III – Possible minor burns; it develops a nice even tan.
  • IV Never sunburn; sunburn easily occurs.
  • V – Dark by nature of the skin.
  • VI – Black skin people from the African continent.

Что нужно знать о меланоме: рекомендации МОЗ

What you should know about melanoma: best practices MOZ

How to identify the disease: Signs of melanoma and dagnostika

Dermatoscopy diagnostics of melanoma. Is carried out using a simple magnifier or Dermatoscope (epiluminescence microscope), which makes transparent the surface layer of skin, the epidermis.

Clinically, melanoma of the skin tumor manifests itself by a dense knot black in color, sometimes with a blue tint, from 0.5 cm to 2 – 3 cm in diameter, rounded or oval in shape with jagged edges. Occasionally there are pigmentless melanoma pink color (achromatic melanoma). Often on the surface of tumors occur erosion or sores that bleed and crust, peeling. In 10% of cases found in the so-called subungual melanoma.

50 – 70% of cases, melanoma occurs in pigment spots, moles as a result of:

  • excessive sun exposure, including Solarium;
  • injury to the skin in the area of moles (friction, shaving, irritation by chemical factors, etc.);
  • self-medication (with the use of irritating drugs);
  • hormonal disorders, development of immunodeficiency and the like.

Signs of degeneration of nevi (moles) in melanoma are:

  • the appearance in the field of nevus unpleasant sensations (tingling, itching, pain)
  • color change (acquisition of blue or black color)
  • the changing shape of the mole, its edges, increasing in size;
  • the change in the surface (the elevation above the level of the skin, the appearance of the tuberosity or sputum, bleeding).

If you noticed priznanie melanoma, immediately consult a doctor. It is impossible to self-medicate.

Что нужно знать о меланоме: рекомендации МОЗ

What you should know about melanoma: best practices MOZ

Prevention of melanoma

To prevent the development of melanoma:

  • avoid sunburn of the skin, use protective creams;
  • avoid skin injuries in the area of moles;
  • avoid contact of skin moles with chemical irritants;
  • regularly inspect the skin and get medical attention promptly for any changes.

Screening is one form of early detection of malignant tumors for prophylactic examination. If you are in the risk group, then every two years shall undergo examination by a medical oncologist.

Earlier we wrote what in the summer there are dangerous insects.

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